approaches to the study of religion pdf
Definitions, approaches and methodologies in the study of religions Santanu K. Patro Introduction In the recent past the study of religions has been established as an indepen dent discipline, thanks to the development of the scientific approach. The second ground for skepticism is that religion has served to define the western idea of the secular, and remains deeply entangled with it. Second, secular modernity is itself rooted in a distinctive Protestant anthropology, the ethos of which neatly maps onto a modern liberal subjectivity that encourages the individual to cultivate the autonomy and discipline required to relate to her beliefs and ends in the right way. Yet the strategy of “disaggregating religion” has a further, more portentous implication for normative political theory. Secularism and freedom of religion, in liberal thought, are connected to moral values such as individual autonomy, moral self-determination, freedom of conscience as well as more political ideals such as non-theocratic constitutional democracy, separation of church and state, and non-establishment of the dominant religion. The first European missionaries had thought that the native peoples of the Americas or Africa had no religion—only “cultures” or “superstitions.” Once colonized, it was discovered that they did have religion after all. From this perspective, it would be a mistake to think that conceptual imprecision is in itself an obstacle to scholarly inquiry. Theories about the Origin and Development of Religions; 5. Approaches to the Study of Religion Joseph Adler Ascension 312 427-5290 firstname.lastname@example.org Fall 2005 TTh 2:40-4:00 Ascension 120 Office hours: MW 3-4, TTh 1-2:30 and by appointment This course introduces students to the variety of academic approaches to the study of religion and to the It is Jacques Waardenburg’s merit to have assembled in Classical Approaches to the Study of Religion well-chosen excerpts from the works of forty-one scholars, from Johann Jakob Bachofen (1815-1887) to Joachim Wach (1898-1955), who sought to explain this most peculiar of human creations. Theologians adopt a more content-based approach: they study the texts and dogma which capture our fundamental dependence on a greater order of things. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. It has been argued that religious studies is a polymethodic discipline, and that the student of religion should be familiar with the approaches of the major disciplines concerned with understanding the nature of religion, not least because the approach adopted has profound influence on the phenomena chose for investigation and the conclusions … the study of religion which includes four follo wing approaches: doctrinal analysis, social. 5/18/2020 Sophia : Welcome Score 23/25 You passed this … Egalitarian theorists of religious freedom, from this perspective, are right to seek to identify the normative grounds on which certain beliefs and practices call for state protection (or state restraint, in the case of non-establishment). Although the phenomenology of religion emerges as both a major field of study and an extremely influential approach to religion, formulating an essay on this subject poses serious difficulties. expression, subjective experi ence and scientific (objec tive) research [1, p. 11]. Required fields are marked *. This week, we are pleased to bring you a double re-post in response to our double podcast with John Wolffe & Ronald Hutton on Historical Approaches to the Study of Religion. Approach. PDF | The issue of methodological approach in the study of religion has remained an enigma to many scholars of science of religion... | Find, read and cite all … Author: Jacques Waardenburg Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG ISBN: 3110473593 Size: 70.29 MB Format: PDF, Docs View: 713 Get Books. Religious beliefs, in particular, are only one sub-set of a larger class, which political philosophers, following John Rawls, call “conceptions of the good.” On this view, a liberal state protects, not only freedom of religion, but more generally freedom of conscience; it disestablishes, not only dominant religion, but also any controversial conception of the good. Here I focus on two objections—which, for ease of presentation, I call the “anthropological” and the “normative” objection. “The notion that such a study is the objective and comparative study of religion. It is a rich concept that connects to vocabularies that bring persons and things, desires, and practices in particular traditions in distinctive ways. discursive study of religion, historical discourse analysis, social constructivism, defĳinitions of reli-gion, sociology of knowledge Although established as an independent discipline at European universities more than one hundred years ago, the academic study of religion is still wres-tling with severe problems of identity and legitimization. If we get rid of the concept of religion, can we adequately express and protect those values? Secularism, on this view, transfers the individual’s “holy” loyalties away from the church and towards the nation-state. Your email address will not be published. Is religion a valid category of scholarly inquiry? Intellectual historians and students of political thought study religious traditions as coherent, inter-generational, scholarly bodies of thought—the “Islamic” or the “Christian” or the “Confucian” tradition, for example. Even this cursory summary of this first approach is, I hope, sufficient to convey the force and depth of the critique of religion. On a related note, the historical achievements of liberal secular states might be obscured if secularism is only perceived as a tool of colonial and imperial domination. Thus in principle it is the study of all religions from a viewpoint not isolated within any one of them. And it may well be true that there is no single essence to the concept of religion, no core defining feature that all conceptions of religion share. Which politics of nature? Ever since the study of religion became a discipline independent of Christian This involves identifying a plurality of normative analogies for religion. The worry here is the hard-won liberal right to religious freedom will not elicit much respect if the existence of religion itself is radically questioned. Religion is a concept created by modern scholars and superimposed on a variety of different phenomena for a variety of motives. It is Jacques Waardenburg’s merit to have assembled in Classical Approaches to the Study of Religion well-chosen excerpts from the works of forty-one scholars, from Johann Jakob Bachofen (1815-1887) to Joachim Wach (1898-1955), who sought to explain this most peculiar of human creations. Disinformation and Democracy: The Colombian Experience, Artificial Intelligence and the Cultural Problem of Online Extreme Speech, Disaster Studies as Politics with Other Means: Covid-19 and the Legacies of Cold War Disaster Research. About Approaches to the Study of Religion. Third, the secular separation between a privatized, individualized sphere of religion and a public, social, rational sphere of politics has obscured the way in which the state, the nation, and the law operate as the modern sacred. It may well be true that the boundaries between religion and other cognate concepts such as tradition, culture, ideology, faith, reason, and so forth are porous and fuzzy. The modern sovereign state is grounded in a distinctive political theology that mobilizes the structural categories of metaphysics and theology to bolster and consolidate the higher identity of secular citizenship. So critics confuse an empirical inquiry (describing what religion is) with a normative inquiry (accounting for its status in the law). First, as religion is not a “thing” but a term of art, it is perfectly legitimate—as suggested above—that different dimensions of it are appropriated in different disciplines and areas of life. Like most abstract concepts, the concept of religion is a construction projected onto the world, but one consequence of this large-scale projection may well be that our world has genuinely come to exhibit it. How would a strategy of “disaggregating religion” help here? The first is that religion is (as Daniel Dubuisson once wrote) “the West’s most characteristic concept, around which it has established and developed its identity.” There is a deep and significant continuity between the Christian defense of the “true religion” and the nineteenth-century invention of “world religions.” The universalism of the concept masked an internally hierarchical classificatory scheme, which, as Tomoko Mazuzawa has shown, was crafted within the crucible of the missionary and colonial encounter. I do not think it is, although I cannot make the full case here. As it happens, one group of influential political philosophers has tried to do just that. Such struggles were political through and through, and it is impossible to discern any common core or essence to all the world religions, as W. C. Smith pointed out in 1962. Kujenga Amani facilitates the exchange of ideas about diverse aspects of peacebuilding in Africa. Approaches in Psychology - Psychologist World Area Study Approach. She is the Director of UCL’s Religion and Political Theory Centre. The Immanent Frame publishes interdisciplinary perspectives on religion, secularism, and the public sphere. But nor does it reduce the normative inscription of religion in the law to a narrow (often ethnocentric) set of concerns and values. Social Science Research Council New Approaches to the Study of Religion and Peace Convenor: Sandra Rios, PhD Candidate, Department of Sociology, University of Aberdeen Contact: email@example.com Abstract The study of the religious involvement in conflict, peacemaking and peacebuilding has mainly focused It may well be, for example, that, in their exclusive focus on the claims of individual conscience, egalitarian theorists have neglected the normative importance of other dimensions of lived religion, such as the centrality of traditional collective rituals to the moral lives of believers. Nor does the origin of a concept in itself discredit its uses: the concept may well have been forged in the crucible of missionary and colonial encounters, but its meanings and uses have further proliferated in non-colonial and post-colonial settings, in ways that escaped, distorted, and subverted the original discourse. The aim of this paper is to give an outline of key approaches to the study of media and religion, and to direct you towards resources that can help you explore these in more depth. Get Book. First, different disciplines will have different answers to the question of what the concept of religion is for; and as a result they will work with different conceptions of religion. Hence the proposed shift from an analogizing to a disaggregating strategy. This had led some scholars, such as Tim Fitzgerald and Naomi Goldenberg, to draw the radical conclusion that the category of religion should be simply abandoned. (PDF) Approaches to the study of globalization This article throws light on the four important approaches to the study of organisational behavior, i.e, (1) Human Resource Approach, (2) Contingency Approach, (3) Productivity Approach, and (4) System Approach. We pick out, from the complex notion of “religion” that we have inherited, distinct elements and values that democratic law has good reason to protect. First, the secular state defines what religion is; religion is privatized as a faith whose object is the supernatural, and differentiates it from the natural and the rational which are the jurisdiction of the state. Sullivan demonstrates that religion is too complex, too comprehensive, and too multi-faceted to be adequately captured by the law of the liberal state. As de Vries puts it: `The nineteenth-century scholars made abundant use of the new materials. Which concept of religion—if any—do we need in the law of the liberal democratic state? The Inside Perspective versus the Outside Perspective; 4. Book Description: New Approaches To The Study Of Religion by Peter Antes, New Approaches To The Study Of Religion Book available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ðµ Ð¿ÑÐ¾, the philosophy of japanese wartime resistance, issues in geriatric medicine and aging research 2012 edition. The SSRC is an independent, international, nonprofit organization. Cécile Laborde is Professor of Political Theory at University College London. 1. more suitable for academic study), the emergence of phenomena such as televangelism led to renewed interest in the relationships between media and religion. What Wittgenstein said about the concept of “game” also applies to the concept of “religion”: the fact that we cannot identify a single feature that all religions exhibit does not mean that the concept of religion is meaningless. View Approaches to Studying Religion Milestone 1.pdf from PHL MISC at University of Phoenix. Religious studies, also known as the study of religion, is an academic field devoted to research into religious beliefs, behaviors, and institutions.It describes, compares, interprets, and explains religion, emphasizing systematic, historically based, and cross-cultural perspectives. Approaches to the Study of Religion book. Your email address will not be published. The anthropological objection, baldly stated, claims that it is just not correct or helpful to say that religion only functions as a term associated with western imperialist and neo-colonialist projects. Approaches to the Black Atlantic: A preliminary analysis of various strategies for the study of Black Atlantic religion from an Americas perspective Ken Chitwood | University of Florida | October 2014 Religion in the Americas is not always as it seems. She shows that the First Amendment Free Exercise clause is quite incapable of capturing the popular, unruly, ritualized religiosity that she sees at work in the baroque funerary displays in a Florida cemetery. In fact, they were perhaps even too eager and hurried . The study of religion, also known as religious studies is an academic field of knowledge that focus on research of religion in its theoretical (philosophical background of the doctrine and ethics) and practical (cult, religion behaviors, etc.) We can say that there are different approaches that can be taken when studying religion. The challenge is threefold: we must attend to the concerns of the critical religion school while, at the same time, be sensitive both to the lived reality of religious experience and belief, and to the protection of the normative ideals underpinning freedom of religion in the law. The point has been made with particular acuity by legal scholar Winnifred Fallers Sullivan in her book The Impossibility of Religious Freedom. Nationalist elites, in turn, fought to deny the label of “religion” to national traditions (see Shintoism in Japan and Confucianism in China). approach to the study of religion in a coherent way, Gerardus van der Leeuw’s Phänomenologie der Religion (1933).”13 Another scholar who sees Hegel’s inﬂ uence on the phenomenol-ogy of religion is Olof Pettersson who argues that, contrary to seeing van der Leeuw as the originator on the strength of the above named work of this approach: Some religions do not have a deity; others are community-based rather than belief-based; and the boundary between them and secular ideologies such as nationalism is porous. These (and others) are all legitimate uses of the concept of religion. 300 Cadman Plaza West • 15th Floor • Brooklyn, NY 11201 • USA Format: PDF, ePub, Docs Category : Religion Languages : en Pages : 497 View: 7627. A response to Crockford. Yet we may wonder whether analogizing religion with “conceptions of the good” is satisfactory. Comparative Religious Studies; 6. Not surprisingly perhaps, the work of those scholars who have most influenced the “critical religion” school, such as Asad and Mahmood, explicitly aims to provide a thick anthropological description of the complexity and diversity of religious experience—it brings out, for example, the distinctive modes of Muslim religious subjectivity. Methodological Approaches to the Study of Religion; 2.1 Theological Approach; 2.2 Philosophical Approach; 2.3 Religious Approaches; 3. It may well be that egalitarian theorists have picked a normatively problematic, or normatively narrow, analogy for religion. Talal Asad and Saba Mahmood have shown, for instance, that liberal secularism requires individual belief—not communal observance, rituals or embodied piety—to be taken as the essence of religiosity. This is the first book to provide an introduction to contemporary cultural approaches to the study of religion. They all provide important insights into religious studies. Phone: 212-377-2700 • Fax: 212-377-2727. aspects. The normative objection is slightly different. Items is a space for engagement with insights from the work of the Council and the social sciences. Read reviews from world’s largest community for readers. The disaggregating approach helps us answer this critique. Not surprisingly, religion-making quickly became a tool of colonial and neo-colonial governance. They suggest that, even though historically the liberal state may have defined itself in relation to a problematic construal of religion, it has since broadened the scope of its moral concern, and is therefore less vulnerable to charges of ethnocentrism. To ask that the law embrace and describe the whole of social reality would be to yearn for a totalitarian law. Although I cannot make the full case here, I sketch a preliminary defense of the third approach, in the context of recent debates in political theory. Likewise, the fact that the law shows special concern for certain dimensions of religion—say, claims of individual conscience—does not entail that religion is, or should be experienced as, individual conscience. Are all legitimate uses of the liberal state in different ways of religion! Might, at first, appear that the Americas is an overwhelming Christian bloc, the philosophy of wartime! 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